London: Complex and Complicated Eras and Epochs
London is a remarkable, concentrated demonstration of the complexities
of a constantly changing world of modern civilisation and society
with previous achievements and many influences close at hand.
In visiting and viewing London there are so many eras and epochs
to identify, recognise and appreciate. They are frequently cheek
by jowl or even mixed up.
There follows a list of eras and periods - in more or less chronological
order. These may seem to be Architectural styles; but they are
also in artistic outputs, theatre, music, literature; fashion,
decoration and hairstyles; technology and innovation; reflected
in names of streets, pubs and places; popular culture and entertainment;
political change; and language.
Ongoing influences can be subtle such as in the continued use
of Roman numerals and Latin inscriptions.
Some eras are named after royalty; others are descriptive, with
foreign connections, timely or have other origins.
The interesting realisation is that they are all present in London,
are likely to remain so and will increase further over time.
Some epochs can be derivative as in neo Georgian, Gothic Revival,
Edwardian Baroque Revival, short back and sides.
What must be remembered is that only the better examples of earlier
periods remain or survive or are conserved and so may be romanticised,
not be fully representative; and yet each example was recognised
as a new beginning or of its time - at some time.
These circumstances will continue to present themselves to all
project management situations - it is called change - past, present
and future - it is everywhere in London. Roman; Dark Ages; Saxon;
Norman; Early English; Perpendicular; Decorated; Gothic; Medieval;
Tudor; Elizabethan (I); Shakespearian; Jacobean; Stuart; Baroque;
Commonwealth; Puritan; Cromwellian; William and Mary; Palladian;
Classical; Renaissance; Hanoverian; Regency; Georgian; Early Victorian;
Dickensian; Late Victorian; Arts and Crafts; Post Impressionism;
Beaux-Arts; Art Nouveau; Art Deco; English Baroque; Edwardian;
Imperial; Jazz Age; Pre-war; War Time; Post-War; Orwellian; Utilitarian;
Churchillian; Brutalism; Modernism; Contemporary (1950s); Post
Modern; Elizabethan (II); Minimalist; Flower Power; Mods and Rockers;
Thatcherism; Integrated; Holistic; Global; Internationalist; New
Labour; and more.
There are also decades from the twenties, thirties, forties,
fifties, sixties, seventies, eighties, nineties, noughties, twenty-tens,
And there are the centuries although these can be rather simplistic
as 21st, 20th, 19th, 18th and that sort of thing.
More recently the wide demographics of people in London mean
that there are facilities and influences for all parties including
- The Silent Generation born 1928 to 1945.
- The Baby Boomers born 1946 to 1964.
- Generation X born 1965 to 1980.
- The Millennials (Gen Y) born 1981 to 1996.
- Generation Z born 1995 to about now.
London reflects and responds to all of these influences.